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Political Science, Development
Virginia Fawcett 09/03/2019 03:00 PM CST


Both Brazil and South Korea are influential countries in their regions. However, they achieved their statuses not a long time ago. In addition, the impact of social capital and civil society are approximately on the same level in these counties. Finally, it is necessary to investigate the development plan of Egyptian president in order to receive the full image of current development schemes of countries in today’s world.

To start with, Brazil is a country that has the biggest influence in South America. Its economy and democracy are on the highest stage of development. In addition, together with Russia, India, South Africa, and China, it belongs to BRIC nations, which is one of new economic powers. Besides, the state made many efforts over last few years to reduce poverty, which is one significant issues of Brazil. Apart from that, finding of a big amount of offshore oil could accelerate the development even more due to perspectives to become one of major exporters of oil in the world. However, the country still has some problems that do not allow it to reach a higher position in the world and are mentioned in deductive essay topics. First, a gap between rich and poor is still wide. Second, a significant part of arable land belongs to wealthy families. As a result, landless Brazilians started Movement of Landless Rural Workers (MST), which demands redistribution of the land. Lastly, the third part of the population in such big cities as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro lives in slums. On the other hand, the World Bank states that Brazil has positive results in reducing social and economic inequality. Moreover, the Brazil’s Aids program can be vivid example for other developing countries, because it managed to reduce the amount of AIDS-related deaths and stabilize the rate of HIV infection. Furthermore, Brazil leaders made the biggest pharmaceutics companies reduce the prices for AIDS medicines.

South Korea was one of the world’s poorest countries in 1960s due to losses in Korean War. However, now it is one of the leaders among developing states. On the other hand, some critics explain the Korean success by big financial aid from the United States and Japan. Thus, Korea received $60 billion from the US in grants and loans between 1946 and 1978, whereas the whole African continent received only $68.9 billion of aid. Nevertheless, the effective using of received money is a significant achievement for this Asian country. Furthermore, Korean leaders managed to demonstrate the strength, choosing the development strategy that differed from the American plan. In particular, South Korea under leadership Park Chung –Hee concentrated on developing large business conglomerates, whereas America suggested focusing on small and medium companies. The strategy of Korean strategy became successful and led to the appearing of such famous brands as Samsung and LG. The negative effects of the strategy are political corruption, monopoly status of businesses conglomerates, and economic inequality in the society. However, Park chose interesting approach to corruption. He made corrupted businessmen invest into industries that focused on import. Therefore, the financial aid and its effective using caused the fast development of South Korea. Moreover, the developing processes still continue.

The leading role in the development processes in both countries has belonged to state institutions. They introduce reforms and regulate all economic, political, and social processes in the countries. As for civil society, it does not have dramatic role, because it has not been formed completely in Brazil and South Korea. The possible reason for this is a high level of corruption there. In addition, Brazil and South Korea do not have powerful middle class. The biggest part of the population is very poor, whereas the number of very rich citizens is small. However, wealthy people possess the real power in Japan and South Korea. Moreover, they have close relations with polite elite. This provokes corruption. Besides, most of Brazilians and Korean simply do not have the strength to participate in development processes because they need to think about surviving.

Corruption and wide gap between poor and rich citizens negatively affect the social capital in both countries. However, the policy of the country’s leaders has led to reducing of these issues. Therefore, trust and cooperation may increase over time. In addition, some researchers state that Brazilian poor people need to gather their efforts to survive, so it would be a lie to say that Brazil and South Korea do not posses social capital at all. Moreover, wealth citizens also need to cooperate in order to support their businesses.

Another example of a country that develops is Egypt. Its leader, Morsi, suggested electoral program, which presupposed developing democratic norms, fighting the corruption, and rejecting the dependence on foreign countries. In addition, it aimed to build the society that would provide access to education, jobs, healthcare etc. Besides, people would obtain the right to build their businesses and ask for help within the country and abroad. Apart from that, the plan stated the necessity of improving the image of Egyptians and uniting them into one nation. Therefore, the Morsi’s electoral plan presupposed development of true democracy together with saving national identity and Islam beliefs.

Despite the promises of new Egyptian president to focus on protecting rights and dignity of ordinary people, many citizens insist on the leader’s resignation due to several reasons. First, opponents of Morsi state that ordinary people do not feel any improvements. For instance, he failed to achieve security and social justice. Second, security and economic problems have increased. In particular, crime rates have risen during the last two years. Third, the fiscal health of Egypt is also in a bad state, so International Monetary Fund is discussing a possible $4.8-billion loan. Lastly, some people claim that arrests increased, the economy became weaker than before, and political freedom is reducing. Moreover, there are Egyptians that say that none of the revolutions’ goals became real, and things are even worth than during the leadership of Mubarak.

To sum up, all three countries declared the goals to develop. However, the achievements of Brazil, South Korea, and Egypt are different. In particular, Brazil became the world’s economic giant and the most influential countries in the South America. Today Brazilian leaders focus on the reducing poverty and healthcare, because wide gap between poor and rich is their main issue. As for South Korea, it has also has a strong position in the modern world. The reason of successful development processes is financial aid from abroad and its effective usage. As a result, South Korea has large profitable business conglomerates that provide the country’s prosperity. However, the economic development of both countries occurs without active participation of civil society, because state institutions do not provide the growing of its interest in state affairs. Social capital is also not big enough due to high level of corruption, social inequality, and low living conditions. On the other hand, common problems lead to emerging of some amount of trust and cooperation between people of the same classes. One of the latest examples of countries that desire to start development processes is Egypt. The country had revolution two years ago, which finished with the changing the regime. The new president Morsi promised to focus on supporting the rights of ordinary people, introducing democratic norms with saving national and religious peculiarities. However, many Egyptians claim that Morsi did not do what he promised. Furthermore, there are even people that state that life in Egypt has become worse after the revolution. A possible reason of Morsi’s failure is that the whole state system is affected by corruption and other kinds of crime, so one person is not able to change the situation. He/she needs the assistance of qualified team and cooperation of the nation. In addition, economic problems also deteriorated the executing of Morsi’s goals.

Glory 09/30/2019 04:12 PM CST

Thank you for your opinion because I will probably use it in my essay of I just buy it on Nevertheless, I want to save my money and write it myself